A smiling woman loading greenery into a large container.

Protecting Marine and Terrestrial Biodiversity in Indonesia .

Environment and Natural Resources | Biodiversity Conservation and Natural Resource Management | Environmental and Climate Risk Management | Combatting Environmental Crimes

Build Indonesia to Take Care of Nature for Sustainability (BIJAK)

Project Dates: June 2016 - June 2021
With Indonesia’s incredible marine and terrestrial biodiversity at risk, the need to manage conservation areas and protect vulnerable ecosystems more effectively is acute.

Indonesia has the greatest combined concentration of marine and terrestrial biodiversity in the world. But various environmental hazards — for example, major changes in land use, escalating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and the destruction of marine and terrestrial habitats — jeopardize Indonesia’s valuable ecosystems. The USAID Build Indonesia to Take Care of Nature for Sustainability project or Bangun Indonesia untuk Jaga Alam demi Keberlanjutan (BIJAK) reduced GHG emissions and preserved Indonesia’s valuable biodiversity. The project addressed the factors that cause deforestation and biodiversity loss, including market forces, financial incentives, policies, and social norms. Working across sectors, BIJAK collaborated with Indonesian policymakers at the national level, civil society organizations, local communities, and other stakeholders to preserve the country’s biodiversity and tropical forests.


law, regulations, and policies proposed or adopted


percent reduced demand for wild-caught songbirds as a result of behavior change campaign reaching nearly one million songbird-keepers and group members


conservation areas with completed zonation and mapping to inform improved management and community partnerships

Project Goals

  • Improve how different levels of government interact to advance the management of conservation areas and the protection of biodiversity
  • Capture evidence of successful environmental practices and find ways to scale up these practices to the national level
  • Update Indonesia’s legal, fiscal, and budgetary practices so institutions are better equipped to preserve biodiversity
  • Promote environmentally friendly, low-carbon business models that discourage destructive industry and private sector practices
  • Encourage civil society to play a more active role in changing public opinion about biodiversity conservation and low-carbon development issues